Books I’ve Read This Week: Short Royal Books

My New Year’s Resolution for 2018 is to read a book (or listen to an unabridged audiobook) every day: 365 books by December 31. I will post my reviews here each week and provide regular updates on Twitter and Goodreads. Recommendations are always welcome!

Week 39: Short Royal Books: My reading list in recent weeks has included a variety of short royal books including a children’s book about Queen Charlotte and the history of the Christmas tree in England, four museum guides about the royal palaces of Sweden and Denmark, a novel about what might have happened if Queen Elizabeth II had developed an all consuming passion for reading, and the latest volume in the Penguin Monarchs series. Here are this week’s reviews:

#267 of 365 The Queen and the First Christmas Tree: Queen Charlotte’s Gift to England by Nancy Churnin

Date Read: October 15, 2018

Genre: Children’s Historical Fiction

Acquired: Received a Review Copy

Format: Hardcover, 32 pages

Review: A delightful and well researched children’s book about how Queen Charlotte, consort of King George III, brought the first Christmas tree to England. Charlotte was an unconventional princess and queen who preferred spending time in her garden to becoming a leader of fashion at court and the book shows how she made an unique impact on British history with her support for orphanages and hosting children’s parties with Christmas trees. The book includes a historical afterword about Queen Charlotte and her legacy. Beautifully illustrated and highly recommended.

The Royal Palace Stockholm#268 of 365 The Royal Palace Stockholm by Various Authors

Genre: History/Museum Guidebook

Acquired: Purchased from The Royal Palace, Stockholm

Date Read: October 2, 2018

Format: Paperback, 80 pages

Review: A room by room tour of Stockholm’s royal palace including both history and the modern ceremonies that take place there. The book concludes with short biographies of Sweden’s monarchs from Gustaf Vasa to Carl XVI Gustaf, noting key developments in Sweden’s history. Gifts presented to the Swedish royal family from foreign monarchs are discussed in detail, including the Don Quixote tapestries presented to King Gustaf III by King Louis XVI of France in the eighteenth century. I would have been interested to see more reproductions of royal portraits from the palace as well as the paintings by Gustaf VI Adolf’s 1st wife, Crown Princess Margareta. A great souvenir of my summer visit to Stockholm’s Royal Palace!

#269 of 365 The Guide to the Swedish History Museum by Inga Ullen

Genre: History/Museum Guidebook

Date Read: October 3, 2018

Format: Paperback, 96 pages

Acquired: Purchased from the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm

Review: A good overview of the history of Sweden from prehistory to modern times, illustrated with objects from the Museum of Swedish History. The Viking Age and medieval art collection are described in the most detail as the museum contains an extensive collection of medieval pieces. The photographs are of the objects as you would see them in the museum and I would have been interested to see more close up views of individual artifacts, especially the historic textiles. An good introduction to both Swedish history and the museum’s collections.

#270 of 365 Christiansborg Palace Guide Book by Amalie Vorting Kristensen

Date Read: October 3, 2018

Genre: History/Museum Guide Book

Acquired: Purchased from the Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen

Format: Paperback, 64 pages

Review: The current Christiansborg palace dates from 1928, and the focus of the book is on modern Danish royal history and court ceremonies but there is also discussion of previous castles that have left ruins on the site dating back to 1167. There are some interesting details about the impact of individual members of the royal family on the Christiansborg including Queen Margarete II’s late husband Prince Henrik’s introduction of French cuisine to the palace kitchens. I would have been interested to read more about the modern Danish history tapestries in the palace. Beautiful illustrations including photographs of the royal apartments, chapel, kitchens, theatre and stables.

#271 of 365 The Uncommon Reader by Alan Bennett

Date Read: October 5, 2018

Acquired: Borrowed from Toronto Public Library

Genre: Historical Fiction

Format: Hardcover, 124 pages

Review: A charming novel about what might happen if Queen Elizabeth II developed an all consuming passion for literature after stumbling upon a traveling library while walking her dogs. At royal walkabouts, she begins asking members of the public what they are reading, assigns books on the Middle East for the Prime Minister to read before making foreign policy decisions and skips Niagara Falls on a visit to Canada to instead read the complete works of Alice Munro. There are some insightful observations about royal life and routines. A little dated now as it is set around the Queen’s 80th birthday but still a delightful read.

#272 of 365 The Treasury: The Regalia and Treasures of the Realm by Ulla Landergren

Date Read: October 10, 2018

Acquired: Purchased from The Royal Palace, Stockholm

Genre: History

Format: Paperback, 52 pages

Review: A fascinating history of Swedish coronation rituals from medieval acclamations at the Mora stone to the accession of Gustav V, who declined to be crowned in 1907. The Regalia were stored in a bank vault for much of the 20th century before being placed on display at the Royal Palace in Stockholm. Today, the regalia appears at royal weddings and accessions where it is displayed to convey status but not worn by members of the Swedish royal family. The text is quite detailed and includes descriptions of the individual pieces of regalia but could have been improved by comparisons to royal accession rituals elsewhere in Europe. The illustrations are comprehensive and the book concludes with a timeline of Swedish coronations in Uppsala and Stockholm from 1528 to 1873.

#273 of 365 Henry I: The Father of His People by Edmund King

Date Read: October 21, 2018

Genre: History/Biography

Format: Hardcover, 116 pages

Acquired: Borrowed from Toronto Public Library

Review: The latest installment in the Penguin Monarchs series is a short biography of King Henry I, the youngest and most successful son of King William the Conqueror. Both Henry and his elder sister Adela (the mother of Henry’s successor King Stephen) were born after the Norman Conquest of 1066 and may have viewed themselves as having a special status as the children of a reigning King of England. The author discusses the King’s rise to power in detail then focuses on his administration and legacy. His grandson Henry II surrounded himself with long lived advisors who were familar with Henry I’s reign.

The book also provides a detailed analysis of Henry I’s queen, Edith of Scotland, who is described as “a tactile woman” who comforted people who were grieving the loss of family members and washed the feet of lepers (to the disgust of her younger brother, King David I of Scotland). The author notes parallels between Edith’s public image and that of Diana, Princess of Wales in the 20th century. I would have been interested to read more about Henry I’s two dozen illegimate children as only the most historically significant ones are named in the biography. A good introduction to Henry I and Edith of Scotland and their impact on English history and subsequent generations of the royal family.

Baltic Sea Cruise Travel Photos 2018: The Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden

In August, I gave a royal history lecture series on a Baltic sea cruise. The first stop was Stockholm, Sweden, where I visited the royal palace, the official residence of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Sylvia. Here are a few of my photographs from the trip:

Stockholm Palace Chapel

King Carl XVI Gustaf

Paintings by King Carl Gustaf XVI’s grandmother, Crown Princess Margareta (Princess Margaret of Connaught, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria)

In the Meleager Salon of Stockholm Palace. According to the palace guidebook, “The woven tapestries were part of the dowry of Ulrika Eleanora the Elder” Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark (not to be confused with her daughter, a queen regnant) was consort to King Charles XI of Sweden

The King Charles XI gallery

King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Sylvia of Sweden

King Gustaf VI Adolf’s 1st wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught

Lady Louise Mountbatten, the 2nd wife of King Gustaf VI of Adolf of Sweden

The Bernadotte Rooms 

Queen Josefina of Sweden, consort of King Oscar I. Born Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg, she was named for her grandmother, Empress Josephine (consort of Emperor Napoleon I).

Books I’ve Read This Week: Queens and Empresses

My New Year’s Resolution for 2018 is to read a book (or listen to an unabridged audiobook) every day: 365 books by December 31. I will post my reviews here each week and provide regular updates on Twitter and Goodreads. Recommendations are always welcome!

Week 30: Queens and Empresses: In recent weeks, I have been reading extensively about one of my favourite topics, the political and cultural influence of royal women. I will be delivering a lecture about Catherine the Great and the Hermitage later this month as part of a royal history lecture series on a Baltic Sea cruise and I have therefore been reading extensively about Catherine’s famous art collection. I am also working on a feature article about royal wedding dresses to be published in time for Princess Eugenie’s wedding this October, and so I have been reading more about royal fashions from the eighteenth century to the present day. I also recently read three more titles from the Palgrave Macmillan Queenship and Power series. Here are this week’s reviews:

#204 of 365 Royal Women and Dynastic Loyalty edited by Caroline Dunn and Elizabeth Carney

Genre: History

Format: E-Book, 207 pages

Acquired: Borrowed From Robarts Library, University of Toronto

Date Read: July 25, 2018

Review: A collection of articles about royal women and their contributions to royal dynasties from classical times to the 19th century. While there are familiar figures examined in this volume, such as Mary, Queen of Scots and her son James I’s queen, Anna of Denmark, most of the contributors examine comparatively overlooked figures. There are chapters concerning Empress Elizabeth Christine (the mother of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and the grandmother of Queen Marie Antoinette of France), and the little known royal women of the 17th century Ottoman Empire who served as stabilizing figures during an uncertain time for their ruling house. 

The authors draw conclusions that continue to be relevant to the history of monarchical government, women and power, and royal court culture. For example, in her chapter on Queenship and the Currency of Arts Patronage as Propaganda at the Early Stuart Court, Wendy Hitchmough observes that royal palaces continue to be sites of national identity and memory, as demonstrated by the recent Remembrance Day poppies installation at the Tower of London and the role of Kensington Palace as a site for mourning Diana, Princess of Wales.

Since the book is based on a series of conference papers, the chapters are short and sometimes end abruptly, especially the opening chapter about King’s Daughters, Sisters, and Wives: Fonts and Conduits of Power and Legitimacy by Waldemar Heckel. I hope that the contributors will expand their research into longer articles and books as the chapters in this volume examine important and often overlooked historical figures and their contributions to dynastic legitimacy.

#205 of 365 The Empress of Art: Catherine the Great and the Transformation of Russia by Susan Jaques

Genre: Biography/Art History

Acquired: Purchased from Amazon.com

Format: Paperback, 480 pages

Date Read: July 25, 2018

Review:The Empress of Art provides a good overview of Catherine the Great’s art patronage and the development of the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. Jaques writes in an engaging, accessible style, and places the acquisition of key art collections such as the Walpole paintings within the context of the wider events of Catherine the Great’s reign. The author has visited Saint Petersburg and demonstrates a familiarity with the historic buildings of the city, Catherine the Great’s influence on architecture, and her role in setting wider cultural trends.

In addition to detailing Catherine’s cultural activities, Jaques explains the ultimate fate of the paintings acquired by the Empress. While some of Catherine’s purchases remain on display at the Hermitage museum, her grandson Czar Nicholas I sold some of the pieces that he judged to be inferior while other acquisitions were destroyed by fire or sold to the National Gallery in Washington D.C. during the Soviet period. 

Unfortunately, there are some historical errors sprinkled throughout the book, especially toward the beginning and end. The errors concern names, dates, and, most often, the family relationships between royal personages. (For example, Maria Josepha was Maria Theresa’s daughter, not her daughter-in-law. A daughter of the last Byzantine Emperor did not marry a czar, as stated in the book. Instead, a niece of the last Byzantine Emperor married a Grand Duke of Muscovy, Ivan III. The title of czar was not in use until their grandson’s reign.) While these errors do not undermine Jaques’s overall argument that Catherine was a key cultural patron with a lasting legacy in a number of different spheres, they are distracting for the reader.

The Empress of Art is an engaging biography of Catherine the Great as a cultural patron that is especially useful for visitors to Saint Petersburg and the city’s Hermitage Museum. Includes illustrations of key paintings and architecture from Catherine’s reign.

#206 of 365 Queenship and Counsel in Early Modern Europe edited by Helen Matheson-PollockJoanne Paul and Catherine Fletcher 

Genre: History

Date Read: July 26, 2018

Format: E-Book, 291 pages

Acquired: Borrowed from Robarts Library, University of Toronto

Review: An excellent collection of scholarly articles about how early modern queens exercised and received political counsel. The book includes fresh perspectives on Tudor and early Stuart era queens who are often reduced to one dimensional portrayals in the popular imagination.

For example, Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, closely associated with her nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V because of the circumstances of the breakdown of her marriage, in fact had a more complicated attitude toward English foreign policy and was not always perceived as placing Spain’s interests first. Henry VIII’s sister Mary, Queen of France, famous for marrying Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk and incurring the King’s displeasure in fact remained closely interested in Anglo-French relations for the rest of her life, and attempted to maintain her own network of connections during her brief marriage to Louis XII. Mary, Queen of Scots paid careful attention to her household, avoiding appointing the wives of privy Councillors to attend her in a personal capacity in an attempt to separate her public and private spheres. Queen Elizabeth I made use of her classical education to affirm her authority over male Councillors.

In addition to chapters reassessing well known queens, there is analysis of little known queens consort and the manner in which they exerted political influence. The book’s focus on the early modern period allows for exploration of how royal women’s roles were passed through the generations. For example, there is a chapter about Bona Sforza, Queen of Poland followed by a chapter about her daughter, Catherine Jagiellon, Queen of Sweden, two queens consort who deserve to be more well known. The book comes together as a cohesive whole, with parallels drawn between the various queens discussed in individual sections and wider conclusions presented about the range of roles for a queen in the sixteenth century. Highly recommended for scholars and general readers interested in early modern queenship.

#207 of 365 Queens Matter in Early Modern Studies edited by Anna Riehl Bertolet

Genre: History

Format: E-Book, 399 pages

Acquired: Borrowed from Robarts Library, University of Toronto

Dates Read: July 28-August 2, 2018

Review: A collection of scholarly essays dedicated to Carole Levin, the co-editor of the Palgrave Macmillan Queenship and Power book series. I am honoured that my own book is mentioned in Charles Beem’s essay concerning the development of the series, which states, “…Carolyn Harris’s Queenship and Revolution in Early Modern Europe: Henrietta Maria and Marie Antoinette, a provocative comparative study of two queens who suffered miserably at the hands of revolutionary ideologies.” The chapters are divided by theme, presenting a broad range of perspectives on early modern queenship, especially the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. I found the chapters about Elizabeth I’s role as a godparent (she had at least 114 godchildren over the course of her reign including John Harington, inventor of the flush toilet), and the comparisons between Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots especially fascinating. An interesting and informative read.

#208 of 365 Catherine the Great: Art for Empire: Masterpieces from the State Hermitage Museum, Russia

Genre: Art History

Date Read: July 30, 2018

Acquired: Received as a Gift

Format: Paperback, 328 pages

Review: The book that accompanied the 2005 Catherine the Great exhibition at the Art Gallery of Ontario. A nice balance between beautiful illustrations of works of art collected and commissioned by Catherine the Great, and insightful essays about the different facets of her role as patron of arts. The art historians focus on the variety of different art forms in Catherine’s collection including paintings, sculpture and cameos, her motives for amassing such an extensive art collection, and the question of whether she possessed good taste or was simply a “glutton for art” who bought large collections without considering the merits of the individual works. The essays concerning her patronage of women artists including Elisabeth Vigee LeBrun and Marie-Anne Collot are especially interesting. I would have been interested to read a concluding essay about the expansion of the Hermitage museum’s collection after Catherine the Great’s reign.

#209 of 365 The Royal Wedding Dresses by Nigel Arch and Joanna Marschner 

Genre: History and Fashion

Date Read: August 2, 2018

Acquired: Read at Toronto Reference Library

Genre: Hardcover, 176 pages

Review: A beautifully illustrated history of royal wedding fashion from Henry VII and Elizabeth of York to Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson. Although the title suggests that the book examines wedding dresses alone, the authors also look at the fashions worn by royal bridegrooms, bridesmaids and guests. There are some fascinating examples of royal brides adapting traditional bridal fashions to reflect their own preferences including Queen Marie of Romania choosing a tulle veil instead of the wedding lace favoured by most of Queen Victoria’s descendants, and her cousin Princess Margaret of Connaught choosing an Irish made gown embroidered with shamrocks to reflect her happy memories of spending time in Ireland as a child. I would be interested to read an updated edition that includes the last few decades of royal wedding fashion.

#210 of 365 Marie Antoinette’s Head: The Royal Hairdresser, the Queen, and the Revolution by Will Bashor

Genre: History

Date Read: August 7, 2018

Acquired: Borrowed from Toronto Public Library

Format: Hardcover, 299 pages

Review: An excellent read, especially in tandem with Queen of Fashion: What Marie Antoinette Wore to the French Revolution by Caroline Weber. Bashor examines the life and hair-raising exploits of Leonard Autie, who rose from obscure origins in Gascony to become Marie Antoinette’s hairdresser and confidant. Both the hairdresser and Marie Antoinette’s milliner, Rose Bertin, became recognizable public figures in their own right and were nicknamed Ministers of Fashion, setting precedents for future celebrity stylists and fashion designers.

I especially enjoyed the chapters about the Flight to Varennes, where Leonard acted as a secret messenger for the King and Queen, and his brother may have unwittingly foiled the royal family’s plan to flee France. Leonard had a long career after the French Revolution, styling the hair of the Russian Imperial family, including the murdered Czar Paul I for his state funeral. Marie Antoinette’s Head is lavishly illustrated with images from the French archives of Marie Antoinette, her family and her famous hairstyles. Highly recommended.

Royal Studies Journal Article: Canadian Women’s Responses to Royal Tours from the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day

Princess Louise in Canada, dressed for an Ottawa winter during her time as vice regal consort of Canada from 1878 to 1883.

My new article in the Royal Studies Journal discusses how Canadian women responded to royal tours from the late eighteenth century to the present day.

Abstract: In the United Kingdom and Canada, support for the monarchy is higher among women than men. From Walter Bagehot’s political theory in the nineteenth century to modern day polling data, monarchism among women is usually attributed to royal events in popular culture from nineteenth-century royal weddings to twenty-first century depictions of the royal family in television and film. Press coverage of royal tours of Canada in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries often depicted women as passive bystanders in crowds, only gradually adding depictions of women as active participants in welcoming royalty.

The history of Canadian women’s responses to royal tours and other public engagements by royalty in Canada from the eighteenth century to the present day reveals that there is a long history of women assuming active roles when royalty are present in Canada, seeking redress in legal cases in the eighteenth century, requesting patronage for organizations benefiting women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and debating the future of the monarchy in Canada in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

The impact of royalty in Canada on women’s lives has become part of Canadian culture and literature. The higher levels of support for monarchism among women compared to men should therefore not be assumed to be due to passively viewing royal weddings, fashions or popular culture alone, but should be placed within this context of women actively engaging with royalty during their public appearances in Canada, viewing royal occasions as opportunities to have their concerns addressed by prominent public figures.

Click here to read “Canadian Women’s Responses to Royal Tours from the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day” in the Royal Studies Journal

New Canadian Encyclopedia Article: Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone

Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone

My latest article in the Canadian Encyclopedia is about Her Royal Highness Princess Alice Mary Victoria Augusta Pauline of Albany, Countess of Athlone, viceregal consort of Canada from 1940 to 1946 (born 25 February 1883 in Berkshire, United Kingdom; died 3 January 1981 in London, United Kingdom).

Princess Alice promoted Canadian culture and women’s contributions to the Second World War. She was the last surviving grandchild of Queen Victoria and the last member of the royal family to serve as viceregal consort of Canada.

Click here to read Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone in the Canadian Encyclopedia

 

New Canadian Encyclopedia Article: Princess Patricia of Connaught

Princess Patricia

My latest article in the Canadian Encyclopedia is a biography of Princess Patricia of Connaught.

Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth of Connaught (born 17 March 1886 in London, United Kingdom; died 12 January 1974 in Windlesham, Surrey, United Kingdom). Patricia resided in Canada from 1911 to 1916 and acted as hostess for her father, the Duke of Connaught, during his term as governor general. She gave her name to Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry and became honorary colonel-in-chief in 1918. A talented artist inspired by Canadian landscapes, she exhibited her paintings in Canadian art exhibitions, and examples of her work remain part of Canadian collections.

Click here to read my article on Princess Patricia of Connaught in the Canadian Encyclopedia

New Book Chapter about Royalty and The Arts in Canada

The Canadian Kingdom: 150 Years of Constitutional Monarchy, edited by D. Michael Jackson was published  by Dundurn Press today. The book contains a chapter I wrote about the history of Royalty and the Arts in Canada from the eighteenth century to the present day. Click here to purchase The Canadian Kingdom: 150 Years of Constitutional Monarchy

From the introduction of The Canadian Kingdom:

“In “Royalty and the Arts in Canada,” Carolyn Harris examines royal interest in Canadian culture over the three centuries since Queen Anne. The royal family have paid particular attention to the artistic heritage of the Indigenous Peoples, paralleling the intimate link between the Crown and the Indigenous Peoples in Canada. A daughter of Queen Victoria, the accomplished artist Princess Louise gave a big boost to Canadian culture when she was chatelaine of Rideau Hall with her husband Lord Lorne, governor general from 1878 to 1883. Vigorous royal support resumed when the artistic Princess Patricia, daughter of Louise’s brother the Duke of Connaught, accompanied her father during his term as governor general from 1911 to 1916. Harris points out that the present Queen and her family are very much involved as patrons and collectors of the arts in contemporary Canada. Indeed, she refers to Elizabeth II as the “curator monarch” and believes that “the continued close ties between the royal family, the creation of fine art, and the Royal Collection suggest a dynamic future for royal involvement in the arts in Canada.”

Click here to purchase The Canadian Kingdom: 150 Years of Constitutional Monarchy

New Book Chapter: Royalty and the Arts in Canada in The Canadian Kingdom edited by D. Michael Jackson

I contributed a chapter about Royalty and the Arts in Canada to The Canadian Kingdom edited by D. Michael Jackson and published by Dundurn Press. The book will be published next month.

Queen Elizabeth II’s role as a curator monarch over the course of her long reign has exerted a profound impact on Canadian art and culture, building upon centuries of patronage of Canadian artists, architects, and cultural institutions by past generations of royalty, most notably members of the royal family who resided in Canada for years at a time. A number of Canada’s past royal residents, including Queen Victoria’s daughter Princess Louise and granddaughter Princess Patricia, were accomplished artists in their own right who raised the profile of Canadian galleries by founding new cultural institutions, attending events, submitting their pieces for judgement in Canadian exhibitions, and donating their work. Over the course of her reign, Queen Elizabeth II has loaned or donated art to Canadian cultural institutions and acquired works by Canadian artists for the Royal Collection, expanding the scope of royal involvement in the arts in Canada and setting precedents for artistic patronage by future generations in the royal family.

Click here to view The Canadian Kingdom – Table of Contents

Click here to pre-order The Canadian Kingdom 

York University Magazine Interview: Royalty and Fashion

Meghan Markle

I discussed the impact of royalty on fashion with York University Magazine. Here’s an excerpt from the article:

“When members of the royal family undertake public engagements, their clothing and accessories are closely scrutinized and fashion designers often experience increased exposure and sales,” says Carolyn Harris, a royal historian in Toronto and author of Raising Royalty: 1000 Years of Royal Parenting. “­Sentaler is the latest example of the impact of royalty on fashion.”

Click here to read “Fresh Coat” in York University Magazine

New Article in Quartz Magazine: Actresses Like Meghan Markle Have Been Winning The Hearts of Royals since 1668

Meghan Markle

My recent article in Quartz Magazine discusses the history of romances between princes and actresses in Britain since the 17th century including Charles II and Nell Gwynn, William IV and Dorothy Jordan and Edward VII and Lillie Langtry.

Here’s an excerpt from the article:

“Since the 17th century, royal patronage of the arts has brought princes and actresses together. Until the First World War, royalty usually married other royalty, so these relationships did not end in marriage. The women who combined a successful career on the stage with a high-profile relationship with a prince, however, became the celebrities of their time, expanding the role of women in public life.”

Click here to read “Actresses Like Meghan Markle Have Been Winning The Hearts of Royals since 1668.”