Comparing the Constitutional Monarchies of the Countries on Prince Charles’s November Itinerary: Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand

Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. Photo credit: Reuters

Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall are currently in Australia as part of a two week tour of Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee. This tour marks the Duchess of Cornwall’s first visit to these countries but Prince Charles has a long history of involvement in the region. In 1966, he spent two terms at Geelong Grammar School in Australia as an exchange student from the Gordonstoun School in Scotland. As part of his studies, the Prince traveled to Papua New Guinea with his history tutor to learn about the history and culture of this unique commonwealth realm. The Diamond Jubilee tour therefore celebrates the Prince’s decades of interest and involvement in the region as well as the Queen’s 60 year reign.

Prince Charles on his first visit to Papua New Guinea in 1966. Photo credit: The Associated Press

The three commonwealth realms on the royal couple’s itinerary may share Queen Elizabeth II as head of state but they have distinct systems of constitutional monarchy. Popular perceptions of the royal family and royal tours, both in previous decades and today, also differ amongst Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand.

In Papua New Guinea, there is widespread popular admiration for “Misis Kwin” as Elizabeth II is known in the local creole language, Tok Pisin. Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia in 1975 but retained the Queen as its Head of State. In contrast to the other commonwealth realms, where the Queen’s representative, the Governor General, is nominated by the Prime Minister, the parliament of Papua New Guinea elects the nominee for Her Majesty’s approval. This collaborative system for selecting the Governor General undoubtedly contributes to the monarchy’s popularity.

The Royal Yacht Britannia, now a museum ship in Edinburgh. Before it was decommissioned in 1997, the yacht facilitated royal visits to island commonwealth realms such as Papua New Guinea

The Duke of Edinburgh, known in Tok Pisin as “oldfella Pili-Pili him bilong Misis Kwin” visited the island as part of an extensive commonwealth tour of the region in 1956-1957 that included opening the Summer Olympics in Melbourne, Australia. The Queen’s most extensive visit to Papua New Guinea occurred during her Silver Jubilee tour in 1977 when she visited the capital, Port Moresby, Popondetta and Alotau.

In common with Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands, commonwealth realms visited by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge this year, Papua New Guinea experienced fewer royal visits after the Royal Yacht Britannia was decommissioned in 1997. Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall’s visit this week has been greeted by cheering crowds and the Prince’s decision to introduce himself in the local language as the “nambawan pikinini bilong Misis Kwin” (The number one child belonging to Mrs Queen) endeared him to the people of Papua New Guinea.

Prince Charles greeting Governor of Queensland Penelope Wensley upon his arrival in Australia. Photo credit: Tertius Pickard/AFP/Getty Images

The history of popular perceptions of the monarchy in Australia is more complicated, encompassing both extreme enthusiasm for the royal family and republican sentiment. The first royal tour of Australia, by Queen Victoria’s second son Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, in 1868, was marked by the first political assassination attempt in Australian history. The Prince was shot and wounded in the back by Irish-Australian law clerk Henry James O’Farrell necessitating a two week hospital stay before his departure.

Mishaps also occurred during royal tours of Australia in the 20th century. When the future Edward VIII visited in 1920 to thank Australians on behalf of his father, King George V, for their contributions to the First World War, his railway carriage overturned. The Prince was unhurt and made light of the incident, calling it a The Prince was unhurt and made light of the incident, calling it a ‘harmless little railway accident.’ More serious injuries occurred in Melbourne in 1954, when the enormous crowd that gathered to greet Elizabeth II on her first visit to Australia broke through police barricades. According to the Adelaide newspaper, “The Advertiser,” “Screaming women added to the tumult and some who were trampled on had to be treated by St. John Ambulance Officers.”

The Queen in Australia in 1954

More recently, Australia has debated changing its government from a constitutional monarchy to a Republic. In 1999, a referendum proposing that Australia cut ties with the monarchy was defeated by 55% of the popular vote. At the time, Republican sentiment was divided by whether the Governor General would be replaced by a President nominated by the Prime Minister or by popular vote. A 2011 poll, however, revealed that support for constitutional change is the lowest it has been for twenty years. Of those surveyed, only 34% were pro-republic as opposed to 55% pro-monarchy, suggesting that the monarchy’s popularity has increased in the twenty-first century.

Queen Elizabeth II wearing a traditional kiwi feather cloak while giving royal assent to the Waikato Raupatu Claims Settlement Act 1995

Queen Elizabeth II’s role as Head of State has been much less controversial in New Zealand. The existence of the modern state of New Zealand dates from the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 when over 400 Maori chiefs granted Queen Victoria sovereignty over what is now New Zealand in exchange for recognition of their land rights and receiving the status of British subjects. The Crown is therefore integral to the history of the modern state, particularly the property rights of the Maori people. Royal visits to New Zealand have been well received in the past. The Queen has visited on ten occasions and has included words of the Maori language in her speeches at Maori welcoming ceremonies, reaffirming the historic relationship between the crown and New Zealand’s first peoples.

Prince Charles’s Diamond Jubilee tour of Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand encompasses three distinct constitutional monarchies that share Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State. The monarchy has been embraced as part of the national character of Papua New Guinea and New Zealand and royal visits there have traditionally been well received. Australia has gone through periods of republican sentiment and popular reactions to royal tours have ranged from an 1868 assassination attempt to a 1954 stampede by thousands of enthusiastic Australians. Recent polling data suggests that Australians are once again embracing the constitutional monarchy and will provide a warm welcome for the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall.


The Duke of Kent Celebrates Two Jubilees in Uganda

Queen Elizabeth II's cousin, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent

Queen Elizabeth II’s cousin, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent is currently in Uganda where he will celebrate two jubilees on October 9. The Duke’s visit to Uganda is part of the celebration of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee, which has seen members of the royal family travel to all commonwealth nations to mark the monarch’s sixty year reign. For Uganda, 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of full independence from the United Kingdom, the nation’s Golden Jubilee. The Duke of Kent represented the Queen at the independence ceremonies in Uganda’s capital, Kampala, in 1962 and his presence represents the continuity of his interest in this African nation. October 9 is also the Duke’s birthday. The Duke’s busy schedule of royal engagements and tours also demonstrates the importance of the Queen’s extended family to her relationship with the global commonwealth.

Following the death of Queen Victoria and the ascension of Edward VII in 1901, the number of members of the royal family performing official duties began to contract. Queen Alexandra assumed charitable patronages previously held by Edward’s sisters, Princesses Helena, Louise and Beatrice. In an era when overseas royal visits were rare, a smaller royal family appeared to suit public needs.

A 1917 Punch cartoon entitled "A Good Riddance" showing King George V sweeping away his family's German titles

The process of streamlining the royal family was formalized in 1917 when King George V decreed that only children or male line grandchildren would be Princes or Princesses addressed as His or Her Royal Highness. The German royal titles of many members of the King’s extended family were abolished and replaced with titles that placed them within the English aristocracy. For the younger children and grandchildren of Queen Victoria resident in the United Kingdom, the reigns of George V and George VI marked their gradual withdrawal from royal engagements and life in the public eye.

By the time Queen Elizabeth II ascended to the throne in 1952, the public role of the royal family had expanded to encompass frequent personal visits to the Commonwealth, which expanded rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s as the decolonization of the former British Empire accelerated. The new Queen took her role as Head of the Commonwealth seriously and was determined to increase the royal family’s personal relationship with this global group of nations. To achieve this goal, the Queen reversed the streamlining of the royal family enacted by her predecessors and actively involved her royal first cousins, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Princess Alexandra, Prince Michael of Kent and Richard, the present Duke of Gloucester in public engagements and tours.

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, hands the instruments of Ugandan independence to Milton Obote in 1962

Queen Elizabeth’s ascension therefore marked the beginning of Edward’s long career of public service. The sixteen year old Duke, who had inherited the title on the death of his father Prince George, (younger brother of Edward VIII and George VI), in an airplane crash in 1942, walked behind George VI’s coffin and swore allegiance to Elizabeth II at her coronation. Following his graduation from Eton, Edward enrolled at Sandhurst, the beginning of a long military career that included a tour in Hong Kong and command of a squadron serving in Cyprus as part of a United Nations force in 1970. Following his retirement from the military in 1976, Edward assumed the role of Vice Chairman of British Trade International, a position he held until 2001.

The Duke and Duchess of Kent on their wedding day in 1961

Although Edward’s 1961 wedding to Katharine Worsley, at York Minster cathedral, which had not been the setting of a royal wedding since the Middle Ages, had raised his public profile in the United Kingdom, Edward was not well known internationally until he represented the Queen at a series of independence ceremonies for new commonwealth nations including Sierra Leone, Uganda, Guyana and The Gambia. As royal historian Hugo Vickers has recently written, Uganda’s first executive Prime Minister Milton Obote did not consider the Duke of Kent to be a sufficiently senior member of the royal family to represent the Queen when Uganda formalized its independence, describing Edward as “a young man and totally unknown in Uganda.”

Despite the skepticism that greeted his arrival in Uganda for the independence celebrations, the Duke received popular acclaim for his speech, which expressed his admiration for the Ugandan people and hopes for the newly independent nation. Edward stated, “This lovely country which is your home was once aptly described as “a fairy tale” – a description given to it by one of the greatest men of our time, Sir Winston Churchill, who came to Uganda nearly sixty years ago.  In Uganda, he continued, “There is discipline, there is industry, there is peace”.  And, “From end to end, it is one beautiful garden.”

It was a well-deserved tribute, as my wife and I have been able to see for ourselves; it is now in your hands to preserve this good repute; to ensure that your country’s name is respected by other nations, not only in the vast Continent of Africa but throughout the world, and to build it into a nation that is envied everywhere for its stability, and for its happiness.” The full text of the Duke of Kent’s 1962 speech is available here.

Sadly, the people of Uganda experienced little stability or happiness during the first fifty years following independence. Obote was deposed in 1971 and replaced by the military dictator Idi Amin, whose eight year reign of terror resulted in the mass killings of 300,000 Ugandans. More recently, the civil war between the Ugandan government and Joseph Kony’s Lord’s Resistence Army, which is notorious for the use of child soldiers, has killed thousands and displaced millions. On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of independence, many Ugandans have expressed disappointment in the current state of the country.

The combined celebration of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee and Uganda’s Golden Jubilee provides an opportunity for Uganda to begin a new chapter in its history. The stability and happiness predicted by the Duke of Kent in 1962 may finally occur in the twenty-first century as Uganda gradually rebuilds after decades of warfare. The Duke of Kent’s presence for the fiftieth anniversary of Ugandan independence represents the continuity of the monarchy’s relationship with this troubled commonwealth nation and the royal family’s hopes that the next fifty years will bring more stability and happiness to Uganda.

The Countess of Wessex Attends the Toronto International Film Festival

The Earl and Countess of Wessex in Ottawa on September 12 Photo Credit: Andre Forget/QMI AGENCY

The Earl and Countess of Wessex began their 2012 Toronto engagements this evening with a visit to the Toronto International Film Festival. The Countess of Wessex attended a Diamond Jubilee medal presentation and TIFF reception at the Lieutenant Governor’s
Suite in Queen’s Park, the legislative building for the province of Ontario at 6pm. Canadian Filmmaker Atom Egoyan, and Festival Directors Piers Handling and Michèle Maheux each received the medal for their contributions to Canadian arts and culture. At 9pm, the Countess will attend a screening of Rebelle, by Canadian director Kim Nguyen at the Elgin & Winter Garden Theatre.

Rebelle is a drama about Komona, a twelve year old girl forced to become a child soldier in the Democratic People’s Republic of the Congo and her attempts to overcome her tragic circumstances. Lead actress Rachel Mwanza received a Best Actress Prize at the Berlin Film Festival and the most non- professional cast has been praised by critics for their authentic performances. The Earl and Countess of Wessex both have a strong interest in the welfare of children worldwide. In 1999, they founded the Wessex youth trust, which provides funding for organizations that help children in need. The choice of film reflects the couple’s interest in improving the lives of young people.

The Duchess of York, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie at the premiere of The Young Victoria in 2009. Photo Credit: Brent Perniac/AdMedia/KEYSTONE Press

The Toronto International Film Festival has seen royalty on the red carpet on previous occasions. In 2009, Sarah, Duchess of York and her daughters Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie attended the premiere of The Young Victoria at Royal Thompson Hall. The Duchess of York co-produced the film with Martin Scorsese and Princess Beatrice had a prominent cameo as one of Queen Victoria’s ladies-in-waiting. During their visit to Toronto, the Princesses took the opportunity to shop and see the sights incognito, visiting the Yorkville Club Monaco and the Royal Ontario Museum.

The Earl of Wessex has a longstanding interest in film and the theatre. Instead of pursuing a military career like his elder brothers Prince Charles and Prince Andrew, Prince Edward pursued jobs in the arts. In 1988, he joined Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Really Useful Group as a production assistant.

Edward’s work inspired a personal visit to Toronto in 1989, when the Prince attended the premiere of the Phantom of the Opera. After working for another theatre company, Theatre Division, Edward founded his own television production company, Ardent Productions, in 1993. Ardent produced a broad range of programs, most notably documentaries about King Edward VIII and the restoration of Windsor Castle after the 1992 fire, but experienced financial difficulties. Both the Earl and Countess began a full schedule of royal duties with the Golden Jubilee in 2002 but the couple’s artistic interests continue to influence the itineraries of their official, working and personal visits.

The Earl and Countess of Wessex will attend further engagements in Toronto on Monday, September 17. They will accompany Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, David Onley to a 2015 Pan/ParaPan American Games briefing in the morning. The Earl has a strong interest in youth athletics through his patronage of the Duke of Edinburgh Award program and this briefing is an opportunity for the royal couple to engage with planning of the 2015 Games in Toronto.

In the afternoon, the Earl will preside over a Duke of Edinburgh Community Showcase & Gold Award Ceremony while the Countess visits with Roots of Empathy, a charity that focuses on reducing bullying in the classroom. The Earl and Countess of Wessex’s visit to the Toronto International Film Festival is the start of a busy program of events in Toronto that reflect the royal couple’s artistic interests and charitable patronages.

Royals in the Arctic: The Earl and Countess of Wessex Visit Iqaluit, Nunavut

The Earl and Countess of Wessex are greeting by Nunavut Premier Eva Aariak in the presence of Commissioner Edna Elias. Photo credit: Government of Nunavut

The Earl and Countess of Wessex arrived in Iqaluit, the capital of the territory of Nunavut last night on the second stop of their week long working visit to Canada. Although Prince Edward has visited Canada on thirty-two previous occasions, and is the only member of the royal family apart from the Queen to have a Canadian Private Secretary, 2012 marks his first visit to Nunavut. According to Nunavut Premier Eva Aariak, the territory was the Earl and Countess of Wessex’s first choice of destination on their 2012 working visit.

Iqaluit skyline during the winter

The royal couple have a full itinerary of events during their time in Nunavut. The program began this morning at 10:30am with a ceremony at the Nunavut legislative building to honour sixteen long serving members and employees of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The Earl of Wessex is Honorary Deputy Commissioner of the RCMP and takes a close interest in the organization. Five of the honourees will receive Diamond Jubilee medals. After a lunch  given by The Honourable Edna Ekhivalak Elias, the Commissioner of Nunavut, at her Residence, the Earl and Countess will attend a service of dedication at St. Jude’s Anglican Cathedral.

The rebuilt St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral in Iqaluit in 2012.

The site of the original St. Jude’s cathedral was dedicated by Queen Elizabeth II during her 1970 tour of the Canadian arctic. The unique building, designed to resemble an igloo, was severely damaged by fire in 2006 and has recently been rebuilt. The presence of the Earl and Countess of Wessex at the dedication of the new building continues to the royal connection to the seat of the Anglican Diocese of the Arctic. At 5:30pm, the royal couple will attend a reception for community leaders and volunteers at the Nunatta Sunakkutaangiit museum with Commissioner Elias. The museum is housed in an old Hudson Bay Company Warehouse and contains exhibitions of Inuit sculpture, prints and artifacts.

The people of Iqaluit will have the opportunity to meet the Earl and Countess of Wessex at a community feast this evening at at St. Jude’s Anglican Parish Hall. The Hall was the setting of Anglican religious services after the destruction of the original St. Jude’s cathedral and still serves as a community centre. After spending the night in Iqaluit, the Earl and Countess will visit the nursing program at Nunavut Arctic College before returning to Ontario for the remainder of their visit. The college was founded in 1968 as an Adult Vocational Training Centre by the government of the Northwest Territories and became Nunavut Arctic College when Nunavut became a separate territory in 1999. The nursing program operates in a partnership with Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Anne touring Resolute Bay, Northwest Territories in 1970

Royal visits to Canada’s territories are not only an opportunity for the Queen and her family to engage with the people and institutions of the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut but are politically significant as direct evidence of Canadian sovereignty over the Arctic. During the Cold War, Canada’s territories were strategically significant because of their proximity to both the United States and the Soviet Union.

Queen Elizabeth II’s 1970 tour of the Arctic was a direct statement of Canadian sovereignty over the region during a period when the United States was questioning Canada’s ability to effectively populate and defend its northern territories. Instead of only visiting the territorial capital cities of Whitehorse and Yellowknife, as she had done during her 1959 cross Canada tour, the Queen, accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Charles and Princess Anne traveled north of the Arctic Circle to what are now the communities of Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk. Her presence symbolized Canada’s authority over these regions.

In the twenty-first century, Canada is once again facing challenges to its sovereignty over the Arctic. As global temperatures rise, the Northwest Passage through the islands of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories is increasingly accessible to sea going vessels. Canada claims the Northwest Passage as part of its internal waters according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The other Arctic Nations, most notably the United States, argue that the Northwest Passage is part of international waters and cannot be closed to shipping traffic by the Canadian government.

As these debates unfold, royal visits to the Arctic territories continue to reinforce Canada’s sovereignty over the region. The presence of the Earl and Countess of Wessex in Iqaluit had broader political significance in addition to the royal couple’s personal engagement with the people and institutions of Nunavut.

Royals in the Garden: The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Visit Singapore Botantical Gardens

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge admire an orchid named for Diana, Princess of Wales at Singapore Botanical Gardens. Photo Credit: Pool/Getty Images

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge began their nine day Diamond Jubilee tour of Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands today with a visit to Singapore Botanical Gardens. William and Catherine admired an orchid named for Diana, Princess of Wales, which she had intended to view herself at the time of her death in 1997. To commemorate their visit, the royal couple were presented with a special white and purple hybrid orchid named the Vanda William Catherine in honour of their marriage. The Diana and William Catherine orchids join the dozens of flowers, and a few vegetables, named in honour of royal occasions.

King Edward VII in his coronation robes

William’s great-great-great-grandfather, King Edward VII achieved immortality in the garden through the development of the King Edward potato, one of the oldest varieties still in cultivation today. Following the disastrous blight that precipitated the Irish potato famine in 1840s, attempts were made to develop more disease resistant varieties. In 1902, John Butler of Scotter, Lincolnshire derived a white skinned, pink coloured potato from the Rough Purple Chili potato that predominated in nineteenth century Ireland. The new potato was first introduced in the United Kingdom in 1902, the year of King Edward VII’s coronation. Butler therefore named his new spud, “The King Edward potato” in honour of this royal occasion. This hardy vegetable was a staple of British diets during the food rationing of the Second World War and is now considered one of the best potatoes for making gnocchi.

The Duchess of Edinburgh clematis, named for Her Royal and Imperial Highness, Grand Duchess Marie of Edinburgh

The 2011 wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge is not the first royal wedding to inspire a new kind of flower. When the future King Edward VII’s brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh married Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia in 1874, florists George Jackman & Son developed a new flower, which they named the “Duchess of Edinburgh” clematis in honour of the bride. The most spectacular modern display of these royal flowers is in the white garden at Sissinghurst Castle, designed by Vita Sackville West.

Queen Elizabeth II’s sister, Princess Margaret Rose, naturally inspired botanists to develop new varieties bearing a name that was both royal and floral. The pink Camellia japonica or winter rose ‘Princess Margaret’ flowers honoured the Princess. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother cultivated varieties of this flower in her own garden and these “Margaret Roses” were included in the Princess’s funeral wreath.

Princess Irene tulips

The Dutch royal family has also inspired unique varieties of flowers. The orange “Princess Irene” tulip, is named for Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands’ sister, Irene. The Princess was born on the eve of the Second World War and her parents Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard named her for the Greek word for peace in the hope that hostilities would be averted. Princess Juliana and her daughters spent the wartime years in Ottawa as guests of the Canadian government. To thank Canadians for their involvement in the liberation of the Netherlands and for hosting the Dutch royal family, Princess Juliana sent thousands of tulip bulbs to Ottawa including the newly created Princess Irene tulips. The name celebrated both the Dutch princess who spent her early childhood in Canada and the peace that followed the Second World War.

The orchids in Singapore Botanical Gardens named for the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Diana, Princess of Wales are part of a long tradition of royal names for new varieties of flowers or, in the case of the King Edward Potato, vegetables. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, royal weddings, coronations, tours and homecomings have been commemorated through the naming of new plants. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge continued this custom on their Diamond Jubilee tour of Singapore.

The Itinerary for the Earl and Countess of Wessex in Canada: September 11-18, 2012

The Earl and Countess of Wessex attending the wedding of Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden and Daniel Westling in 2010

The Earl and Countess of Wessex will be in Canada from September 11 to September 18, 2012 for a working visit. In contrast to official visits, where a member of the royal family receives a formal invitation from the Prime Minister, a working visit is arranged privately with the Queen’s representatives in Canada. While an official visit involves a royal presence at state ceremonies or celebrations, the focus of a working visit is engagement with the organizations that have a personal relationship with the members of the royal family in Canada. Working visits receive less media attention than official visits but they reinforce the vital relationships between members of the royal family and Canadian institutions.

Governor General David Johnston at the University of Waterloo in 2010

The Earl and Countess of Wessex’s 2012 working visit to Canada will begin in Ottawa on September 11, where the royal couple will be guests of Their Excellencies the Right Honourable David Johnston, Governor General of Canada, and Mrs. Sharon Johnston at Rideau Hall. That evening, the royal couple will attend a Reception on the Occasion of the Third Biennial Gathering of the Royal Victorian Order Association of Canada. The royal Victorian order was established by Queen Victoria in 1896, awarding extraordinary, important or personal services performed for the Sovereign or the Royal Family.

On September 12, the Countess will tour the National War Museum with Mrs. Johnston, viewing the War of 1812 centenary and permanent exhibitions, and observe a demonstration at the Royal Canadian Mounted Police musical ride centre while the Earl distributes Duke of Edinburgh awards to high achieving students in the Ottawa area. The Earl has assumed the patronage of this Awards scheme, which was originally founded by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in the 1950s and travels extensively worldwide to present the awards.

The Queen meeting members of a local cub troop in the Northwest Territories in 1970. Photo credit: Doug Griffin/Toronto Star

After departing Ottawa, the royal couple will fly north to Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut territory for their first visit to the Canadian arctic. According to the Nunatsiaq News Online, “[The Earl of Wessex’s] visit to Iqaluit is likely related to the recent consecration of St. Judes Cathedral. In 1970, the Queen visited Iqaluit for a sod-turning ceremony that marked the start of construction on the original St. Judes.” Queen Elizabeth II’s 1970 tour of the Canadian arctic helped reinforce Canadian sovereignty over this region and the repeated presence of members of the royal family in the north continues this role as the Northwest Passage becomes increasingly open to seafaring traffic.

David Onley, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario

The royal couple will return to Ontario after Nunvut, visiting Trenton, Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines and North Simcoe as part of a tour organized in consultation with the Honourable David Onley, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The visit to Trenton will undoubtedly involve engagement with members of the Canadian forces. The Earl is Colonel-in-Chief of the Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment, based in nearby Belleville and has visited the region on a number of past personal visits. In Toronto, the Earl will continue to distribute Duke of Edinburgh Awards. The Countess’s Toronto engagements have not yet been announced but may include visits to her various charitable patronages in the city, including Toronto General Hospital.

On September 15, the Earl will be part of the 150th anniversary celebrations of The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry. He will also be the reviewing officer for a military Trooping of the Colour ceremony on the tarmac at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. The same day, the Countess will present new colours to the Lincoln and Welland Regiment in St. Catharines as their Colonel in Chief.  The ceremony will take place near the monument to Issac Brock at Queenston Heights, further commemorating the centenary of the War of 1812. The Countess will also visit Niagara College, touring the College’s Wine Visitor and Education Centre and celebrating the launch of the Canadian Food and Wine Institute Research Centre.

In North Simcoe, the Earl and Countess will visit Sainte-Marie among the Hurons in Midland and St. James-on-the-Lines Church in Penetanguishene. Both are historic sites. Sainte-Marie among the Hurons was the first European community in Ontario, serving as the headquarters for French Jesuit Mission to the Huron Wendat people from 1639 to 1649. St. James-on-the-Lines Church celebrated its 175th anniversary last year.

The Earl and Countess of Wessex will visit numerous Canadian military regiments, historic sites, institutions and charities during their working visit. Their upcoming tour of Ontario and Nunavut will reinforce their personal connections to numerous Canadian organizations and institutions and provide opportunities for Canadians to engage with the Crown.


The Importance of the Duchess of Cambridge’s Upcoming Meeting with Women’s Groups in the Solomon Islands

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge at a Gala Celebrating the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.

The complete itinerary for the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge’s upcoming Diamond Jubilee tour of Malaysia, Singapore, Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands was released this past week. In contrast to the 2011 tour of Canada, where the royal couple performed all public engagements together, the Duke and Duchess will separate for the afternoon of September 17 in the Solomon Islands.

During this time, William will present six gold Duke of Edinburgh Awards to high achieving students while Catherine attends a reception for Solomon Island women’s groups. The Duchess of Cambridge’s engagement with women’s organizations in the Solomon Islands has the potential to improve the status of women in this Commonwealth nation.

Britannia, Her Majesty's Yacht until 1997. This vessel facilitated royal visits to island Commonwealth realms.

There have only been two previous official royal tours of the Solomon Islands. In 1974, the Queen and Prince Philip, accompanied by Princess Anne and her first husband Captain Mark Phillips visited the Islands as part of a Pacific tour. In October 1982, the Queen and Prince Philip made a subsequent visit aboard the royal yacht Britannia after attending the Commonwealth Games in Australia. The decommissioning of Britannia after Prince Charles’s visit to Hong Kong for the handover to China in 1997 resulted in fewer royal visits to the more remote, island nations within the Commonwealth. The publicity that will accompany the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge as they undertake a rare royal tour of the South Pacific will result in increased global awareness of the organizations and issues that they engage with during their travels.

The main street of Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands

Women in the Solomon Islands current face numerous threats to their health, safety and well being. According to a 2011 report by Amnesty International, “‘Where is the Dignity in That?’ Women in Solomon Islands Slums Denied Sanitation and Safety” over one third of the 64,600 inhabitants of Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands, live in makeshift shanty towns without reliable access to clean water or sanitation facilities. Residents of these settlements either risk contracting illnesses from contaminated water or walk long distances to collect clean water. Women traveling through remote areas to reach clean water sources often face harassment and sexual assault.

In addition to the threats to health and safety created by living conditions in Honiara’s shanty towns, domestic violence is endemic in the Solomon Islands. According to a 2009 study by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community for the Ministry of Women, Youth & Children’s Affairs, 64 percent of women in the Solomon Islands between the ages of 15 and 49 have experienced domestic violence. In 2010, the government approved a national policy to eliminate violence against women. The Duchess of Cambridge’s engagement with local women’s groups will contribute to increasing awareness of the challenges faced by women in the Solomon Islands.

Queen Victoria and her youngest child, Princess Beatrice.

There are numerous past and present examples of royal women improving the lives of all women through their high profile activities, opinions and charitable patronage. When chloroform and ether were developed as childbirth anesthetics in the mid nineteenth century, the British clergy debated whether the use of these painkillers violated the biblical injunction that women should bear children in suffering. Queen Victoria’s decision to use what she described as “blessed chloroform” for the births of her two youngest children, Prince Leopold and Princess Beatrice, made the use of anesthesia in childbirth socially acceptable.

Queen Victoria’s daughters supported numerous organizations that improved the lives of ordinary women. After her marriage to Prince Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt, Princess Alice attempted to reduce the maternal mortality rate in the German Duchy by supporting charities devoted to improving the lives of mothers and children. Princess Helena improved career opportunities for women through her support of Florence Nightengale’s nursing reforms, and Princess Louise was a patron of the the Girls’ Public Day School Company, and the National Society for the Protection of Young Girls. In the 1930s, Queen Victoria’s granddaughter Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, became the first member of royal family to publicly support women’s access to contraceptives and family planning.

Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary of Denmark

Royal involvement in women’s organizations continues to the present day. In March 2012, Crown Princess Mary of Denmark attended  the Second World Conference of Women’s Shelters in conjunction with her work with the Mary foundation, which assists victims of domestic violence. In April, Princess Basma Bint Saud Bin Abdulaziz, daughter of the late King Saud of Saudi Arabia detailed the five main changes necessary to improve the lives of Saudi women in an interview with the BBC including education reform and an overhaul of the constitution. In May, Cornell law school alumna, Princess Bajrakitiyabha Mahidol of Thailand, returned to her alma mater to endow a scholarship and raise awareness of women’s rights before the law including the situation of female prisoners and their children. The Duchess of Cambridge’s meeting with women’s groups in the Solomon Islands will be part of this trend of royal women seeking to improve the lives of all women.

The Duchess of Cambridge’s attendance at a reception to honour representatives of women’s groups in the Solomon Islands will increase global awareness of the challenges faced by women in this Commonwealth nation. The publicity surrounding the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge’s Diamond Jubilee tour of the South Pacific has the potential to increase the momentum of state and philanthropic initiatives to improve the lives of women in the Solomon Islands.

From Party Prince to the Queen’s Representative: The Rise of Prince Harry in 2012

Prince Harry (centre) representing his grandmother Queen Elizabeth II at the Closing Ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London on August 12, 2012. The Duchess of Cambridge is standing at his right. Source: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images Europe

At the closing ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London, the audience in Olympic Stadium was called to stand for the arrival of Prince Henry of Wales, representing Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Harry’s central role in the Closing Ceremonies marked the apogee of an extraordinary year for Queen’s grandson that saw him assume the duties of a senior member of the royal family.

In March, 2012, Harry completed a successful tour of Belize, the Bahamas and Jamaica on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II, in honour of the Diamond Jubilee. The Prince infused the well known format of the royal tour and walkabout with his own personal style, joining the dancing during street parties, and racing Olympic champion Usain Bolt. In Jamaica, the Prince diffused what might have been a tense diplomatic situation by embracing Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller, who had previously expressed support for the appointment of a Jamaican born Head of State.

Prince Harry plays volleyball on Flamengo Beach on March 10, 2012 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. (Source: Chris Jackson/Getty Images)

Following the Jubilee tour of the Caribbean, Harry visited Brazil as an ambassador for British trade and the London Olympics, promoting youth athletics and discussing the transition from the 2012 to 2016 Summer Olympics, which will take place in Rio de Janeiro. Once again, Harry succeeded within a complicated diplomatic climate as South American attitudes toward the United Kingdom are coloured by Argentina’s claim to the Falkland Islands.

In May, Prince Harry traveled to Washington D.C. to receive the 2012 Distinguished Humanitarian Leadership Award from the Atlantic Council, on behalf of himself and his brother, Prince William for their patronage of charities that assist injured members of the British and American armed forces. This award drew worldwide public attention to Harry’s charity work including his patronage of the Walking With The Wounded, and  support for The Soldiers’ Charity and Help For Heroes.

Prince Harry at the official press launch of Walking with the Wounded in 2010.

The Prince returned to the United Kingdom to celebrate his grandmother’s Diamond Jubilee then threw himself into the role of Olympic Ambassador during the London Games, which culminated in his central role at the Closing Ceremonies. If 2011 was the year of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, with their magnificent wedding and successful tour of Canada, 2012 has been the year Prince Harry assumed the profile and duties of a senior member of the royal family.

The public approval that Harry currently enjoys because of his success representing Queen Elizabeth II and philanthropic work  contrasts with his past reputation as a “party prince” with poor judgement. Although Harry received widespread public sympathy when his mother, Princess Diana, died when he was only twelve years old, he attracted criticism in his late teens and early twenties.

Prince Harry at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 2005.

Harry engaged in charity work in Lesotho during his gap year visit to Africa but the press focused on his altercations with photographers outside nightclubs and his poor choice of fancy dress costume. Carol Sarler, a Daily Express columnist, wrote in 2004 that Prince Harry was a “horrible young man” and a “national disgrace” in column that received a personal rebuttal from the Prince of Wales. Prince Harry’s diplomatic and philanthropic work in 2012 demonstrates that he has learned from his past lapses in judgment and is eager to take his place as a prominent working member of the royal family.

King Henry VIII, the second son of King Henry VII. Upon the unexpected death of his childless elder brother Arthur, he became the heir to the English throne.

Harry’s evolution from Party Prince to the Queen’s representative is important to the future of the royal family because he is currently a direct heir to the throne. The intense speculation about when (not if) the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge will have children ignores the numerous historical precedents for second sons and their children ultimately becoming monarchs. King Henry VIII, King Charles I, King George V and King George VI were all originally second sons of reigning monarchs or their heirs.

The eight years of childlessness experienced by Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako of Japan before the 2001 birth of their only child, Princess Aiko, demonstrates that even in the 21st century, royal succession can be unpredictable. Aiko is not eligible to become Empress under the current Japanese law of succession, which is restricted to male dynasts. While the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge are childless, Prince Harry should be viewed as a potential successor to the thrones of the United Kingdom and the other fifteen commonwealth nations.

In the event that the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge have children of their own, Prince Harry’s abilities as a diplomat and philanthropist will still be essential to the success of the monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II’s cousins, the Duke of Kent and Gloucester and Princess Alexandra perform an extensive program of royal duties but it is unlikely that the younger generation of the royal extended family will have the same public profile. In a smaller working royal family, Harry will be expected to assume a wide range of royal tours and charitable patronages.

Prince Harry’s successes in 2012 as the Queen’s representative and a respected philanthropist will be of lasting benefit to the monarchy. In the event that the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge do not have children of their own, Harry’s increased profile as a working member of the royalty will reassure the public that he will be a successful future monarch. If the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge continue the direct royal line, Harry’s activities will support subsequent monarchs within a streamlined working royal family.