CBC News Interview: The Queen at 90: Why Elizabeth has so many birthdays

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh leaving the Royal York hotel in Toronto on a tour of Canada in 2010.

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh leaving the Royal York hotel in Toronto on a tour of Canada in 2010.

The Queen turns 90 today but the royal birthday celebrations will continue for the next few months as the monarch marks her official birthday in the United Kingdom in June and has special 90th birthday celebrations in May. Various Commonwealth realms celebrate the Queen’s birthday on different dates with Canada observing the occasion on the Victoria Day holiday in May.

I discussed the Queen’s many birthdays with Janet Davison at CBC News.

Click here to read The Queen at 90: Why Elizabeth has so many birthdays at CBC.ca

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CBC News Interview: The Queen at 90: Why it’s more than just a celebration of Elizabeth’s birthday

The Queen reading the throne speech at the 2012 State Opening of Parliament

The Queen turns 90 on April 21 and public celebrations will continue in May and June in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. I discussed the significance of the Queen’s 90th birthday with Janet Davison at CBC.ca.

Click here to read the interview “The Queen at 90: Why it’s more than just a celebration of Elizabeth’s birthday” at CBC.ca

I will be appearing on TV and radio throughout the day on April 21 to discuss the Queen at 90. Here is my schedule of interviews:

6am-8am: CBC News Network

1pm: CTV News Channel

2:30pm-6:30pm CBC syndicated radio

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Postmedia Interview: Queen Elizabeth’s top 10 moments in Canada

Queen in Canada 1959 The Queen celebrates her 90th birthday this month, an opportunity to look back on her long reign, which includes twenty-two tours of Canada. I discussed the 1959 royal tour by the Queen and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh with Kate Bueckert at postmedia and I am quoted in the article “Queen Elizabeth’s top ten moments in Canada,” which appears in the Toronto Sun and other postmedia news outlets.

The 1959 royal tour was the Queen’s longest tour of Canada, the last whistle-stop tour where the royal couple crossed the country by train. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh spent six and half weeks in Canada, visiting every province and territory of the time. Subsequent royal tours were shorter, focusing on specific regions of the country, an approach that continues to the present day.

Canadians responded to the 1959 royal tour with enthusiasm and large crowds greeted the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh at various stops along the tour, including the province of Quebec, where the Queen would encounter protesters just five years later in 1964. The occasional critical voice in the Canadian media met with strong disagreement by senior political figures and members of the public. When CBC journalist Joyce Davidson stated, “We’re still annoyed at still being dependent on a monarchy,” Nathan Phillips, Mayor of Toronto was quick to declare “[Davidson] doesn’t represent Canadians or the people of Toronto.”

Over the course of the royal couple’s itinerary, the Duke of Edinburgh assumed a greater public role as the Queen discovered that she was expecting Prince Andrew and needed time to rest within her busy schedule. (The Queen’s pregnancy was not public knowledge during the tour though Canadian Prime Minister Diefenbaker was one of the first be informed). Prince Philip performed solo engagements including a speech to the Canadian Medical Association at the Royal York hotel in Toronto where he encouraged Canadians to improve their level of physical fitness.

The 1959 royal tour remains one of the Queen’s most historically significant tours of Canada. The Queen opened the St. Lawrence Seaway as Queen of Canada with American President Dwight Eisenhower and had the opportunity to meet with Canadians from across and the country and various walks of life.

Click here to read Queen Elizabeth’s top 10 moments in Canada in The Toronto Sun 

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in Canada in 2010

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in Canada in 2010

For more about the Queen in Canada, see my 2012 Diamond Jubilee series of articles:

1) The Young Queen of Canada

2) The Controversial Queen of Canada

3) The Celebrity Queen of Canada

4) The Jubilee Queen of Canada

 

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Queenship and Revolution in Early Modern Europe receives 2016 Royal Studies Journal book award

I am pleased to announced that my book, Queenship and Revolution in Early Modern Europe: Henrietta Maria and Marie Antoinette, is the recipient of the 2016 award for best book on the history of monarchy from The Royal Studies Journal, which was founded in 2013 by a group of international researchers and postgraduate students with the support of the University of Winchester. The award is sponsored by Canterbury Christ Church University.

Click here to purchase Queenship and Revolution in Early Modern Europe: Henrietta Maria and Marie Antoinette

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Upcoming Guest Lecture: Magna Carta and Its Gifts to Canada at Innis College, University of Toronto, April 27 at 9:45am

I will be giving a lecture about my book, Magna Carta and Its Gifts to Canada: Democracy, Law, and Human Rights for the Academy for Lifelong Learning Spring Talks at Innis College, University of Toronto on April 27, 2016 at 9:45am. The University of Toronto bookstore will be selling books at the event and a book signing will follow the talk. All are welcome!

Click here for more information about the lecture and ticket prices.

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New Canadian Encyclopedia Article: The Crown in Canada

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge in Canada in 2011

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge in Canada in 2011

My latest article in the Canadian Encyclopedia discusses the Crown in Canada.

In Canada, a constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the source of non-partisan sovereign authority and an integral part of the legislative, executive and judicial powers that govern the country. Under Canada’s system of responsible government (or democracy), the Crown performs each of these functions on the binding advice, or through the actions of, members of parliament, ministers, or judges.

Click here to read my article on the Crown in the Canadian Encyclopedia.

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Friday Royal Read: The Romanovs: 1613-1918 by Simon Sebag Montefiore

The Romanovs: 1613-1918 by Simon Sebag Montefiore, author of Jerusalem: The Biography, Catherine the Great and Potemkin and Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar begins by comparing the circumstances of two teenage boys. The first Romanov Czar, sixteen-year-old Michael I, was at the Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma when he was approached by a delegation of Russian nobles imploring him to end the Time of Troubles by founding a new dynasty in 1613. Czar Nicholas II’s only son, Alexei, was thirteen when he was murdered along with the rest of his family by Bolshevik Revolutionaries in Ekaterinburg’s Ipatiev House in 1918. Michael and Alexei were the first and last heirs to a troubled dynasty that shaped Russian history for more than three hundred years.

The most famous figures from the Romanov dynasty, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great and Nicholas II are well known and have been the subject of dozens of books. Montefiore provides a fresh perspective on these rulers but the book really shines in its reinterpretation of more obscure Russian rulers. Peter the Great’s father, Alexei I has long been stereotyped as a meek and mild figure because of his piety but Montefiore makes clear that he was “an intelligent, restless and sharp tongued reformer who did not suffer fools gladly.” Peter the Great’s niece, Empress Anna’s harsh treatment of her nobles is often dismissed a personal caprice but Montefiore places her actions in the context of Peter’s determination to keep the nobility from becoming too powerful and threatening the ruler’s prerogatives.

Montefiore demonstrates the enduring influence of particular noble families from the seventeenth until the twentieth centuries such as the Dolgorukys and the Golitsyns. The support, or at least the obedience, of the nobility was crucial to an Emperor or Empress’s success as a ruler and is one of the reasons why serfdom existed in Russia until 1861, long after it had been abolished elsewhere in Europe. (Readers interested in the fate of the Russian nobility after the Revolutions of 1917 should read Former People: The Final Days of the Russian Aristocracy by Douglas Smith.)

Montefiore avoids the names and patronymics familiar to readers of Russian novels and instead makes extensive use of nicknames to differentiate between Romanovs with similar names or successive generations of the same noble families. (A cast of characters at the beginning of each section provides the full names, titles and positions of all the people discussed in the book).  There are times when this device is effective: the inclusion of Catherine the Great’s nicknames for her favourites such as Alexander “Iced Soup” Vasilchikov and Alexander “Mr. Redcoat” Dmitriev-Mamonov provides insights about how she felt about them and why some were far more influential than others. For the reign of the last Czar, Montefiore makes use of the nicknames used within the Imperial family, bringing the reader closer to Nicholas II’s conflicts with his relatives in the last years of the Romanov dynasty.

In the early chapters of the book, however, the nicknames make the powerful figures of seventeenth century Russia seem like characters out of folklore, undermining their political significance. The Polish noblewoman and warlord Marina Mniszech, consort of False Dmitri I and II is called “Marinka the Witch” in the book and Alexei I’s sister, Irina, is described as a malevolent spinster. Since there are no other figures in this section named Marina or Irina, these nicknames are unnecessary and provide a needlessly one dimensional image of these two powerful women.

Throughout The Romanovs: Ruling Russia 1613-1917, Montefiore makes clear that in an absolute monarchy, the personal is political and that the favourites and interests of each sovereign shaped state policy for more than three hundred years. Montefiore brings the Romanov rulers to life and addresses their impact on Russian politics and society today.

Other Books about the Romanov Dynasty:

The Romanov dynasty from beginning to end has been the subject of at least four major English language books before The Romanovs: 1613-1918 by Simon Sebag Montefiore.

The magisterial The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias by W. Bruce Lincoln separates the personal narratives of individual Czars from their domestic and foreign policies, providing a wider history of Imperial Russia as well as history of the dynasty. Like Montefiore, Lincoln devote an extended section to the last Czar and the collapse of the Romanov dynasty.

In The Romanovs: Ruling Russia 1613-1917, Lindsay Hughes provides an insightful analysis of the dynasty, highlighting the changing role of women in Imperial Russia. The impact of Peter of the Great’s reforms on the Russian elite  receives particular attention. Readers interested in the wider impact  of each Czar’s personality and policies both within Russia and abroad will want to turn to the books by Lincoln and Hughes after reading Montefiore’s The Romanovs: 1613-1918.

 The Romanovs: The Rise and Fall of a Dynasty. by Ian Grey is written in a dry style with a much greater focus on the well known Romanov rulers than the lesser known sovereigns. He challenges the idea that the Romanovs were a tragic dynasty throughout their history and argues that Nicholas II’s predecessors often ruled successfully. Grey was writing in the 1960s and the role of the Soviet Union in the Cold War influences his interpretation of Romanov Russia.

The Tragic Dynasty: A History of the Romanovs by John Bergamini is written in an accessible style and covers the entire three hundred year scope of the Romanov dynasty. Like Grey, however, Bergamini was writing before the collapse of the Soviet Union and therefore did not have access to the full range of sources available to historians today. The book also contains numerous genealogical errors.

Next: Royal Tourists, Colonial Subjects and the Making of a British World, 1860-1911 by Charles V. Reed

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Friday Royal Read: On The Trail of the Yorks by Kristie Dean

Medieval royalty were always on the move. The monarchs from the House of York who ruled England in the late fifteenth century (Edward IV, Richard III and the short lived “Prince in the Tower” Edward V) traveled around their kingdom dispensing justice and asserting their authority. Royal children were fostered in noble households then young men traveled on military campaigns, sometimes accompanied by their wives. Royal women who made dynastic marriages  to foreign princes traveled far from home to their new households.

The  Wars of the Roses resulted in unexpected travels for royalty who were forced to flee abroad or into places of religious sanctuary when events turned against them.  In On the Trail of the Yorks, Kristie Dean, author of The World of Richard III, follows in the footsteps of the House of York, visiting the sites of castles, cathedrals and towns associated with Richard III as well as his parents, siblings, children, nieces and nephews.

On the Trail of the Yorks is both a series of short biographies of the key figures from the House of York and a guidebook detailing the history and visitor information for the places familiar to them. Dean begins with Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, parents of Edward IV and Richard III, examining how their sudden changes of fortune during the Wars of the Roses sent them as far afield as Ireland and France.

The travels of the famous Yorkist kings and their siblings are then discussed in detail. While numerous books about the Yorks end with Richard III’s defeat at the Battle of Bosworth field, Dean continues into the reign of Henry VII, visiting the places significant to the first Tudor queen consort, Elizabeth of York and her book will be of interest to those interested in Henry VIII’s childhood.

In addition to providing a fresh perspective about the House of York, On the Trail of the Yorks reveals how the House of Plantagenet acquired properties over the course of successive reigns and what eventually happened to these estates. With the notable exception of Margaret of York’s marriage to the Duke of Burgundy, Yorkist royalty married members of the English nobility and acquired properties inherited by landed heiresses such as Cecily, Isabel and Anne Neville. Members of the landed gentry convicted of treason often forfeited their estates to the Crown and these new lands were integrated into the royal domains.

There is a popular perception that the British Isles are filled with medieval castles but On the Trail of the Yorks reveals how few of the buildings familiar to fifteenth century royalty are still standing. The dissolution of the monasteries during the reign of King Henry VIII, the English Civil Wars of the 1640s, The Great Fire of London in 1666 all contributed to the destruction of medieval royal residences and places of worship.

The only trace of Palace of Placentia at Greenwich beloved by Elizabeth of York is a plaque commemorating the birth of her son Henry VIII and granddaughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The medieval St. Paul’s cathedral burned down in the Great Fire and was replaced by the modern cathedral designed by Sir Christopher Wren. There is now a Travelodge hotel on the site of the Blue Boar Inn where Richard III reputedly spent the night before the Battle of Bosworth Field and the Duke of Buckingham is reputed to haunt the Debenhams department store near the site of his execution. On the Trail of the Yorks bridges the divide between how these sites appear to a modern visitor and how they would have looked to the House of York.

There are two kinds of readers who will be interested in On the Trail of the Yorks: armchair travelers interested imagining the settings of the Yorkist court and actual travelers looking for information about which sites are open to visitors and whether parking or transit connections are available. Dean provides a wealth of information for both kinds of readers. On the Trail of the Yorks brings the settings of the Yorkist court alive and encourages readers to follow in the footsteps of Richard III and his family during their own travels to the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands and France.

Click here to purchase On the Trail of the Yorks from Amazon.

Next week: The Romanovs: 1613-1918 by Simon Sebag Montefiore

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New Canadian Encyclopedia Article: Letters Patent, 1947

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth at Toronto City Hall in 1939

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth at Toronto City Hall during their 1939 Canadian tour

My recent article in the Canadian Encyclopedia discussed the Letters Patent, 1947.

The Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of Canada, usually shortened to Letters Patent, 1947, was an edict issued by King George VI that expanded the role of the governor general, allowing him or her to exercise prerogatives of the sovereign. While Letters Patent delegated Crown prerogatives to the governor general, the sovereign remains Head of State.

Click here to read Letters Patent, 1947 in the Canadian Encyclopedia

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New Canadian Encyclopedia Article: Sovereign

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh leaving the Royal York hotel in Toronto on a tour of Canada in 2010.

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh leaving the Royal York hotel in Toronto on a tour of Canada in 2010.

My latest article in the Canadian Encyclopedia discusses the role of the sovereign in Canada’s government.

Under Canada’s constitutional monarchy, the sovereign is head of state, the legal foundation of the executive branch of government and one part of Parliament — along with the Senate and House of Commons. The current sovereign of Canada is Queen Elizabeth II.

Click here to read my article on the Sovereign in the Canadian Encyclopedia.

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